Transformation of Refuse Banana Wastes to Value-Added Products

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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1265.3280
Cite this publication
Abstract
Bannana wastes are generated in large amounts every year. Due to the large availability and composition rich in compounds that could be used in other processes, there is a great interest on the reuse of banana, both from economical and environmental points of view. The economic aspect is based on the fact that such wastes may be used as low-cost raw materials for the production of other value-added compounds. The environmental concern is to minimize the pollution arise from the waste discharge. This work will look to further the utilisation of bananas not suitable for the retail market. The work seeks to review the industrial objectives and presprectives behind banana waste valorization and transformation to value added products as starting materials for edibile coating formulations using combined (physical pretreatment-chemical engineering processes). Industrial Objectives And Expected Achievement The aim of the work is to valorize the refuse banana wastes to produce some value-added materials such as native and modified banana starch from the pulps and hemicellulose from the peels, and to fabricate new banana starch-based edible coatings for food preservation. The Main Objectives Of This Work Are: 1. To valorize the market refuse green and ripe banana wastes. 2. To study the potential for production of some value-added materials from banana waste namely native starch , and fibers using different extraction methods.. 3. To modify the functional properties of the native derived starch by physical , chemical and biological means, and throughout the incorporation of green pretreatment technologies which are friend to environment, as well as toreserve time, energy and chemicals needed for conversion. 4. To optimize the operating condition for native starch production and modification and to characterise the optimized derived products.
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Transformation of Refuse Banana Wastes to Value-Added Products
Ibtisam Kamal
Soran University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department
Kurdistan Region- Irak
Abstract
Bannana wastes are generated in large amounts every year. Due to the large availability and
composition rich in compounds that could be used in other processes, there is a great interest
on the reuse of banana, both from economical and environmental points of view. The economic
aspect is based on the fact that such wastes may be used as low-cost raw materials for the
production of other value-added compounds. The environmental concern is to minimize the
pollution arise from the waste discharge. This work will look to further the utilisation of
bananas not suitable for the retail market. The work seeks to review the industrial objectives
and presprectives behind banana waste valorization and transformation to value added
products as starting materials for edibile coating formulations using combined (physical
pretreatment- chemical engineering processes).
Industrial Objectives And Expected Achievement
The aim of the work is to valorize the refuse banana wastes to produce some value-added
materials such as native and modified banana starch from the pulps and hemicellulose from
the peels, and to fabricate new banana starch- based edible coatings for food preservation.
The Main Objectives Of This Work Are:
1. To valorize the market refuse green and ripe banana wastes.
2. To study the potential for production of some value-added materials from banana waste
namely native starch , and fibers using different extraction methods..
3. To modify the functional properties of the native derived starch by physical , chemical and
biological means, and throughout the incorporation of green pretreatment technologies
which are friend to environment, as well as toreserve time, energy and chemicals needed
for conversion.
4. To optimize the operating condition for native starch production and modification and to
characterise the optimized derived products.
5. To improve the knowledge of the parameters that influence starch processing and
modification.
6. Using the native and the modified starch produced as raw materials for formulating of
different starch-based edible coatings including mono-coatings ( starch edible coatings ) and
composite coatings such as starch-casine and starch-chitosan…etc.
7. To optimize the formulation conditions of the edible coatings and the conditions of free-
standing films preparations, in addition, stydying the functional properties of the edible
films including color, transparancy, solubility, thickness, barriar (oxygen, carbon dioxide and
water vapor), thermal, mechanical and microscopical properties.
8. To apply the optimum edible coating formulations on some dried, lightly processed and
freash foods with or without using pretreatment step.
9. To study the quality criteria parameters of the coated foods including inspection the change
in colour, weight loss, firmness and sensory over the time of storage.
10. To compare the efficiency of different methodologies used in valorization of the banana
waste, preparation of the native and modified starch, formulation of the edible coating
solution, and applying the edible solutions on different foods in term of their environmental
and economical impacts.
State Of The Art
Banana (genus Musa, AAA group), the largest herbaceous plant in the world, grown abundantly
in many developing countries is considered to be one of the most important sources of energy
for people living in the humid regions of many countries. It is also considered fourth on the list
of the developing world's most important food, after rice, corn and milk (Arumugam and
Manikandan, 2011). The top ten world producers of banana are presented in Table 1. Bananas
are produced in large quantities in tropical and subtropical areas. The 102 million metric tons of
bananas produced worldwide in 2012 were worth an estimated US$ 28 billion.
The production of bananas is highly concentrated in Asia, as, according to the data of the Food
and Agriculture Organization (FAO) from 2012, the outputs of India, China and the Philippines
account for about 45 per cent of the total value. Other leading regions are the Americas 26.6
per cent followed by Africa – 15.6 per cent.
Table 1: Top ten banana production countries
.
Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2009)
Banana contains several important constituents as presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Composition of bananas per each 100 g.
Composition Raw fresh
water
74.2 g
e
nergy
92 kcal
F
at
0.48 g
1.03 g
carbohydrates
23.43 g
F
iber
2.4 g
K
396 mg
P
20 mg
Fe
0.31 mg
Na
1 mg
Mg
29 mg
Ca
6 mg
Zn
0.16 mg
Se
1.1 mg
Vitamine C
9.1 mg
Vitamine A
81 IU
Vitamine B1
0
.045 mg
Vitamine B2
0.10 mg
Vitamine E
0.27 mg
niacina
0.54 mg
The banana is of the family Muscaceae, the largest of tree-like herbs grown for fruit, large
striking foliage and for fiber. This family has two genera, Musa and Ensete. The genus Ensete
does not bear edible fruit. The genus Musa provides both fruit and fiber is consumed fresh on
the domestic market.
The crop is of major importance to the people in the growing areas as it forms a major portion
of the annual income and a source of food. As is the case for most tropical products, due to the
special climatic conditions needed to grow bananas, they are mainly produced in developing
countries. Developed countries are the usual destination for export bananas.
Production, as well as exports and imports of bananas, are highly concentrated in a few
countries. Ten major banana-producing countries accounted for about 75% of total production
in 2003 with India, Ecuador, Brazil, and China accounting for half of the total. Brazil had a
production of banana equaling 6.8 million tons in 2009 (IBGE, 2010).
Banana is a climacteric fruit, it is consumed when the fruit is ripe. Ripe banana is very
perishable and subject to fast deterioration after harvesting. For this reason, high quantities of
fruit are lost during their commercialization due to poor postharvest handling.
The short shelf life of banana is due to a rapid senescence process that causes the visual
appearances of the fruit peel to degrade from yellow to a muddy brown colour terminating
banana shelf life causing in some cases not reaching consumers at optical quality after
transport and marketing.
The main causes of deterioration are weight loss, colour changes, softening, surface pitting,
stem browning and loss of acidity. Colour changes are due to enzymatic browning caused by
the oxidation of phenolic compounds to ortho-quinones. Frequently, the catechol-related
substrate is formed by hydroxylation of a monohydroxyphenol to the ortho-dihydroxyphenol.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the o-hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols and the
oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones which rapidly polymerize to produce black, brown or
red pigments (polyphenols). PPO is a copper-containing enzyme with molecular oxygen as co-
substrate. It is nuclear-coded but localized in plastids in healthy tissue. Only in degenerating or
senescent tissue does it occur free in the cytoplasm. The following equations clearify the
browning mechanism (Queiroz et al., 2008).
Figure 1 :Hydroxylation and oxidation reactions catalyzed by Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO).
Banana fruit has been extensively described. The aromatic amine dopamine, whose structure
resembles diphenols, is the natural substrate for banana fruit: it occurs in high concentrations
in the peel (210-720 μg/g fresh weight) and pulp (8-48 μg/g fresh weight) and the affinity of the
enzyme is the highest for this substrat.
During banana ripening on the tree and after harvest, reduction of O
2
inside the fruit is
accompanied by fermentation and accumulation of anaerobic off-flavours related to the
production of ethanol and acetaldehyde, accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol causes
severe damage .These processes include the production of aroma volatiles and removal of fruit
astringency.
Both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit produce a lot of acetaldehyde and ethanol,
depending mainly on their genetic characteristics and on the storage conditions, there being
also a genetic component to the ability of different fruit to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol
and to survive anaerobiosis.
The O
2
level at which fermentation starts and ethanol tends to accumulate is named the
Pasteur point, but more recently has been referred to as the lower oxygen limit (LOL) or
fermentation induction point (FIP) Whatever its designation this parameter will differ among
different commodities.
When the O
2
concentration is lowered below the Pasteur point anaerobic metabolism induces
accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol, which can lead to the development of off-flavours,
Severe off-odours, mainly compounds, which contain sulphur, such as methanethiol.
Unripe bananas have a large amount of starch, with a content of 20–25% found in the pulp of
the fruit. During the climacteric period, the accumulated polysaccharide is rapidly degraded and
disappeared rapidly because of the activity of several enzymes acting together, and most of it is
converted into soluble sugars. The average starch content drops from 70-80 % to less than 1%
at the end of the climacteric period, while sugars accumulate to more than 10% of the freash
weight of the fruit. Based on the starch granule structure and enzymatic activity detected in
banana pulp, it seems that both phosphorolytic and hydrolytic activities can play a role during
the climacteric. Besides ethylene as the trigger of banana ripening, there is also evidence that
other plant hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid can act as modulators of
starch metabolism.
Injury of banana leaves, stems and roots and exposure to air also leads to very rapid tissue
browning. Scientists describe banana as recalcitrant because of the extensive discolouration of
tissue extracts from red to brown and even black. The pigmentation is indicative of phenol
oxidation to quinones and polymerization to polyphenols which leads to binding of DNA, RNA
and proteins, to conformational changes of proteins, inactivation of enzymes and to drastic
changes in the phenolic profile.
Upon tissue damage by mechanical injury, feeding by herbivores or insects and infection by
pathogens, cellular compartmentalization is lost and polyphenol oxidase from plastids can react
with phenolic substrates from the vacuole. Polyphenols are responsible for the darkening of
tissue during lesion formation and are thought to seal off wounds or infected tissue to limit
secondary infection or further spread of pathogens. Enzymes produced by pathogens are
inactivated by quinones and plant proteins become unavailable for nutrition.
Native and Modified Starch
Two primary techniques are employed for starch isolation from cearels grains and high content
starch fruits and vegetables. Alkaline extraction using sodium hydroxide solution, and non-
alkaline extraction.
In general, a polymer produced by nature could be used as a matrix material. Starch is a
possible candidate for a natural matrix material and is commercially available at an industrial
scale. Since starch is commercially used as binder in the pulp and paper industry and is a
common component in paper coatings.
Starch is a high molecular-weight polymer of anhydro-glucose units linked by alpha-D glycoside
bonds. The two major polymers in starch are amylose and amylopektin. Amylose is a linear
molecule with an extended helical twist. Amylopektin is a branched molecule. Amylose is
generally smaller molecules with molecular weight of 1–1.5 million. Amylopektin are by
comparison large with a molecular weight of 50–500 million.
Pure starch is a brittle polymer and is, therefore, often plasticized. A common plasticizer is
glycerol. Glycerol is compatible with amylose and interferes with the amylose packing. . Also,
water plays a significant role for the properties of starch. Water is compatible with starch and is
an effective plasticizer. With increasing content of water starch shows both an increasing strain
at break and stress at break.
Native starches represent many disadvantages, thus limiting their wide application and
industrial use. The disadvantages are : poor swelling capacity, high tendency of their paste to
retrograte and synerese, cohesiveness of their pastes, and poor freeze-thaw stability.
While there is limited commercial use for raw starch in foods, there is substantial application
for such a trait in cooked starch. The value of slowly digestible and low-glycemic-index starch is
embodied in the current diet craze of ‘low carb’ foods.
Functional properties of starches available on the commercial market, normally obtained from
corn or other cereals, are often submitted for physical modification (mainly gelatinization) or
for slight and relatively simple chemical modifications to fulfil needs of food and other
industries. Modified food starches generally show better paste clarity and stability, increased
resistance to retrogradation, and freeze–thaw stability.
Native and modified starches (from traditional and alternative sources) have been used since
ancient times as a raw material to prepare different products. They are employed in foodstuffs
because of their good thickening and gelling properties. Actually, they are used for the
formation of starch-based food ingrediants.
Banana is a seasonal and highly perishable fruit and surplus fruits are often available year
around. Due to high starch concentration (over 70% of dry weight), banana processing into
flour and starch is of interest in view of a possibly important resource for food and other
industrial purposes.
Native raw banana starch is known to be resistant to the attack of a-amylase and glucoamylase,
with in vivo results showing that 75–84% of the starch granules ingested reached the terminal
ileum . Although it was found that the resistance was largely overcome by cooking to gelatinize
the starch, other studies showed that the ‘easily hydrolysable starch’ fraction of cooked banana
starch was as low as 47% and was comparable to the known low-digestible cooked yam starch
(40%).
Unripe banana starch is very resistant to digestion in the rat and man. Various studies have
demonstrated that resistant starch (RS) is a part of dietary starch, which is defined as the
fraction of a starch, or the degradation products of that starch, that passes through the small
intestine into the large intestine. Within the large intestine, such indigested starch is fermented
by gut bacteria, producing short-chain fatty acids, which confer a range of benefits for the gut
health and are thought to reduce the risk of colon-rectal cancer. Various RS types have been
characterized in common foods, these indigestible starch fractions are classified as follows:
(1) RS1 corresponds to physically inaccessible starches, entrapped in a cellular matrix, as in
cooked legume seeds.
(2) RS2 are native uncooked granules of some starches, such as those in raw potatoes and
green bananas, whose crystallinity makes them scarcely susceptible to hydrolysis.
(3) RS3, consists mainly of retrograded starches, which may be formed in cooked foods that
are kept at or below room temperature.
(4) Recently, a fourth type (RS4), consists of certain fractions of chemically modified.
Resistant starch can be found in both processed and raw food materials. From these four
types, RS3 seems to be particularly interesting because it preserves its nutritional
characteristics when it is added as an ingredient to cooked foods.
RS3 is produced by gelatinization followed by retrogradation. The formation of RS3 after
retrogradation is due to increased interaction between starch components. It has been shown
that, after starch debranching, the linear chains can contribute to a high RS content . The
degree of polymerization (DP) of the linear chains influences the retrogradation phenomena .
Previous studies have shown that a DP of 20 is optimal for a high RS3 output.
The physiological importance of RS has been investigated in relation to reduction of the
glycemic and insulinemic response to a food, as well as hypocholesterolemic and protective
effects against colorectal cancer The most important effect is based on the high fermentation
rate of retrograded RS3 to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), with a high proportion of butyrate by
action of the intestinal microflora . Resistant starches have been introduced in recent years as
functional food ingredients important for human nutrition. RS has also been commercially
produced and marketed . The RS development method involves gelatinization of a starch with
an amylose content of more than 40%, enzymatic debranching of gelatinized starch,
deactivation of the debranching enzyme, and isolation of the resultant product either by drying,
extrusion or crystallization by adding salt.
Chemical modification of native banana starch have been carried out through out various
studies (Waliszewski et al., 2003, Guerra-Della et al., 2009), modification via acetylation,
phosphorylation , cross-linking, and hydroxypropylation produced improvement in swelling
power, solubility , clarity and freeze- haw stability of native starch, also significant decreased in
initial temperature of gelatinization was detected using chemical modification.
Utilization Of Banana Waste
A huge mass residue is produced from banana plantation, all of which goes waste due to non-
availability of suitable technology for its commercial utilization. However, literature highlighted
the valorization of the waste to value added products including enzymes (Baig et al., 2003, post-
fiber (Bernstad et al., 2012), bioethanol (Shyamet al., 2011, Qureshi et bal., 2012 ), pulp and
paper (Hussain and Tarar, 2014), and other useful products. However, implementation of
Cleaner Production and Green Chemical Technology to utilize waste banana into useful
products will play a vital role in protection the environment as well as strengthen the economy.
Preservation of Banana Fruit
Generally, ripened bananas are pre-cooled to 13 °C before their distribution to supermarkets to
slow down fruit metabolism and therefore prolong senescenc. However, this is costly, and fruit
rewarm rapidly on the display shelves, thereby reducing shelf life.
Most research has focused on ways to extend the green life of unripe fruit. Modified
atmosphere packaging has been suggested as a substitute for low temperature storage ;
however, this storage is costly as it involves labour as well as ethylene absorbent packaging and
also requires careful handling to prevent damage to bags and loss of the modified atmosphere.
Short-term nitrogen treatments are successfully used to increase the green life (from harvest
to yellow with green tips) of bananas, with nitrogen atmospheres of 3-day duration applied
immediately after harvest increasing their green life by 42%. Nitrogen atmospheres are
inexpensive and easy to apply to large quantities of fruit. A nitrogen atmosphere will reduce the
level of oxygen available to the fruit, which in turn will inhibit ethylene production and ripening.
Air-drying alone or together with solar or sun drying is largely used for preserving banana.
Besides the preservation, drying adds value to banana. Banana chip is one such value-added
product with a crispy and unique taste consumed as a snack food and an ingredient in breakfast
cereals. It can be consumed as produced or further processed by coating with sweeteners,
frying in oil, etc.
Edible Films and Coatings
There is potential for spoilage of all foods at some rate or other following harvest, slaughter or
manufacture. Spoilage may occur at any of these stages between the acquisition of raw
materials and eventual consumption of a food product. These stages include processing,
packaging, distribution, retail display, transport, storage and use by the consumer.
Packaging is the most important process to maintain the quality of food products for storage,
transportation and end use. It prevents quality deterioration and facitilate distribusion and
marketing.
The materials used for packaging today consist of a variety of products imbrancing petroleum
derived plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethyleneterphthalate, polyvinyl
alcohol and polyvinyl acetate. Metals, glass , paper and board are also used.
Almost every product we buy, most of food we eate and many of the liquids we drink come
incased in plastics.
Plastics seem to last forever owing to their excellent protection for the products, and cheap to
manufacture. Lasting forever, however, is proved to be of a major environmental problem
concerning their waste disposal, also the traditional plastics are manufactured from non-
renewable resources such as oil, coal and natural gas, besides, their cheaper price does not
reflect their true cost, for an example, when we buy a plastic bag , we do not pay for its
collection and waste disposal.
In an effort to overcome these short comings, biochemical researchers and engineers have long
been seeking to develop alternatives, these are bio-based plastic packagings which can be
derived from renewable resources.
The bio-based materials are biodegradable, they are able to be broken down into simpler
substances by the activities of living organisims. They are edible, nontoxic, odourless , tastless
and acceptable to human consumption. They are made from renewable resources such as
plants, dessert trees and animals, and can be recycled.
The food industry is now considering ready- to –eat packaging where the package is a natural
food grade biopolymer and is an integral part of the food.
Packaging options have expanded from the traditional materials of glass, metal and paper and
now include synthetic polymers engineered to meet particular requirements. Some polymers
derived from natural sources have been engineered for certain products and are already in the
market place. Some of these polymers are edible and have played and continue to play an
instrumental role in food throughout history and in the food, pharmaceutical and other
industries today. Many of these polymers are used alone or in combination with synthetic
polymers to create a class of active packaging commonly referred to as edible films or coatings.
Edible films and coatings from biopolymers with specific properties have received increasing
attention since 1990s. Edible films are thin layers of edible material that are used to
encapsulate food and pharmaceutical products. They are formed on the surface of a food as a
protective or decorative coating, or placed between food components to separate them. They
can also be found as wrappings and pouches used to segregate sensitive ingredients in mixes,
or as a means of delivering just the right amount of a prepackaged ingredient.
Edible films have been applied to meat, poultry, fruits, vegetables, grains, confectionery
products, heterogeneous foods, any of which can be fresh, frozen, cured or processed.
Currently in the food and pharmaceutical industry, edible coatings and films are developed
from proteins, lipids, resins and polysaccharides. Each of these polymers possesses its own
combination of properties, addressing the needs of individual products. They can be used as a
monolayer or combined to form emulsions and bilayers.
The most important functionalities of an edible film or coating include control of mass
transfers, mechanical protection, and sensory appeal. Control of mass transfers involves
preventing foods from desiccation, regulating microenvironments of gases around foods, and
controlling migration of ingredients and additives in the food systems. Edible coatings on freash
fruit can provide an alternative to modified atmosphere storage by reducing quality changes
and quantity losses through modification and control of internal atmosphere of indivitual fruits.
Modification of internal atmospher by the use of edible coatings can increase disorders
associated with high carbon dioxide or low oxygen concentration, even though ingress of
oxygen may reduce food quality owing to oxidation of the aroma components in the food.
Also edible film with greater water vapour permeability is desirable for freash products ,
although an extremely high water vapor permeability is also not desirable as it can result in
excessive moisture loss of fruit during storage.
Adequate mechanical strength of an edible film is necessary to protect the integrity of
packaging throughout distribution. The sensory properties of an edible coating or film are a key
factor for acceptance of final products.
The development and characterization of edible films and coatings have increasly attracted the
attention of biochemists, biotechnologists, and physicists, among others, mainly to the large
variety of applications served by sing biopolymers. Particularly, the capability of edible films to
regulate moisture, lipid migration, and gas transport, can be used to improve food quality and
extend the life of foodstuff. In addition, edible films play an important role in the covering of
thermolabile compounds like vitamins, aroma, and flavours, and other food additives like
antioxidants, antimicrobial agents and colorants providing an efficient method to preserve their
characteristics during food processing.
One of the most important factors in the preparation of edibe films regards the choice of
ingredients. In last few years, the use of biomolecules, e.g. proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides,
has received special attention.
Protein-based films have been prepared with both vegetal and animal proteins, including corn
zein, soy protein, wheat proteins (gluten, gliadin), peanut protein, gelatine, casein, and milk
whey proteins.
On the other hand, edible coatings and films based on polysaccharides have been mainly used
foe fruit covering due to their excellent selective permeability to oxygen and carbon dioxide.
These low-cost films are mostly prepared with derivatives of cellulose, starch, pectins, and
gums.
With regard to biodegradable packaging, starch is the commonly used agricultural raw material,
since it is a renewable source, inexpensive, widely available and relatively easy to handle.
Starch is a reserve polysaccharide present in the endosperm of the grain of corn (Zea mays L.),
banana pulp (Musa paradisiaca), yucca (Manihot esculenta) among others ; it is extracted and
used in the food industry to impart functional properties, modify food texture and consistency
and so on. Starch owes much of its functionality to two major high-molecular-weight
carbohydrate components, amylose and amylopectin, as well as to the physical organization of
these macromolecules into the granular structure. Amylose is responsible for the film-forming
capacity of starches. However, the functional, organoleptic, nutritional and mechanical
properties of an edible film can be modified by the addition of various chemicals in minor
amounts. Plasticizers, such as glycerol, sorbitol and polyethylene glycol, are defined as an
essentially high boiling, non-separating substance, which when added to another material,
changes the physical and/or mechanical properties of that material.
Water is a common plasticizer but is very difficult to control in biopolymers that are generally
more or less hydrophilic. Plasticization of biopolymeric films depends on the RH of the
packaging atmosphere and on the environment for unpacked products. The plasticizers must be
compatible with the polymer(starch), and these compounds decrease intermolecular
attractions between adjacent polymeric chains, thus increasing film flexibility Incorporation of
these additives may, however, cause significant changes in the barrier properties of the film .
In Summery, edible coatings are traditionally used to improve food appearance and
conservation. They act as barriers during processing, handling and storage, and do not solely
retard food deterioration enhancing its quality, but are safe due to natural biocide activity, or to
the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds.
Agro-Based Waste Problem
A major problem experienced by agro-based industries in developing countries is the
management of wastes. The disposal of agricultural wastes on land and into waterbodies are
common, and has been of serious ecological hazards. Inefficient and improper methods of
disposal of solid waste result in scenic blights, create serious hazards to public health, including
pollution of air and water resources, accident hazards, and increase in rodent and insect vectors
of disease, create public nuisances, otherwise interfere with community life and development .
The failure or inability to salvage and reuse such materials economically results in the
unnecessary waste and depletion of natural resources.
About one-fifth of all bananas harvested become culls. When banana bunches arrive at central
collection stations, bananas too small for shipping are removed, along with those that have
damaged or spoiled areas that could cause microbial contamination of the bunch. Rejected
bananas are normally disposed of improperly. Attempts are made to use these culled bananas
in animal feed and products such as chips, flakes and powders, but they are used only to a
limited extent for these purposes due to the low value of such products. Therefore, in some
countries dumping of the rejected bananas into rivers is a common practice. The high
carbohydrate content of the crop creates high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the rivers
and, hence, reduces aquatic animal populations.
A successful industrial use of the culled bananas would alleviate the problem while offering
employment and financial return to the inhabitants. Most likely, the first practical application of
culled bananas would be use of the pulp for starch production or production of a low-cost
banana flour ingredient. Banana starch has the potential to be a commodity starch because of
its specific properties and its potential production from low-cost, cull and market refuse
bananas. Green banana pulp contains up to 70–80% starch on a dry weight basis, a percentage
comparable to that in the endosperm of corn grain and the pulp of white potato.
On the other hand, to date emphasis is on biological conversion of plant wastes, especially
agricultural wastes into added value products. Fungi are known organic waste decomposers
and are generally capable of hydrolysing complex organic compounds as a major source of
energy. This potential has been utilized for biomass production, organic waste disposal and its
conversion into biofertilizers. Studies on the economic importance of microorganisms have
shown that many filamentous fungi are major sources of industrial enzymes that could be used
in the bioconversion of organic wastes to protein rich cell mass (biomass) which may be
incorporated into rations for non-ruminants). Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor hiemalis are
among the most common stubborn food spoilage moulds encountered in tropical environment.
Moulds are also known to produce high yields of nutritionally valued biomass when grown on
organic waste as a source of carbon, energy and inorganic nitrogen The importance of these
moulds to us necessitates frequent researches on their activities in order to optimize their uses.
However, such studies are seriously hindered by the high cost of analytical media.
Transformation Of Banana Waste
I. Fruit peel to starch and fibers
Banana fruit peel is an organic waste that is highly rich in carbohydrate content and other basic
nutrients that could support microbial growth. The potential economic benefits which may
accrue from the use of this cheap nutrient material as a source of mycological research
medium, and as substrates for production of valuable microfungal biomass have prompted the
evaluation of the growth performance and biomass production of the two mould species on
banana peel substrates.
In conclusion, banana starch has potential, both from its digestion properties and functional
properties, to have application in processed foods and become a commercially viable starch
product. Use of culls and market refuse for production of starch would provide a starch that
might be competitive in the world starch market, improve banana economics, and eliminate a
large environmental problem presented by cull bananas.
Banana starch could be an innovative and iteresting commercial product and an alternative to
synthetic edible coating materials.
Also, new material fibers can be isolated from banana peels and used as fillers in polymer
matrix enabling production of economical and light weight composites for load carrying
structures.
2. Bannana Stem to polysaccharides
The banana stem discarded as an agriculture waste from banana plantation was pointed as a
potential cellulose source. The cellulose can be isolated from the stems and converted to man-
modified polysaccharides. The polysaccharides are good starting materials for formulating
edible coating solutions.
3. Bannana Leaves to wound dressing material
In addition to that, banana leaves had interesting potential. The surface of the leaves is waxy,
smooth and non-adherent. The sterile, steamed leaves have been used as an inner, non-
adherent dressing next to the burn wound.
The Proposed Work Plan Flow Chart
Technical And Economical Advantages Of The Work
1. Minimization and valorization of a market refuse waste.
2. Value-added food grade materials can be obtained with optimized physico-chemical and
functional properties. These innovative materials may have commertial interesting as an
alternatrives to the unmodified starch available in the markets.
Market refuse
banana waste
Peeling and
cutting
Alkaline or non
A
lkaline
extraction
With or without
pretreatment step
Optimized banana starch
Physical or chemical
modification
Optimized
modified starch
Formulation: adding solvent
mechanical shear and/ or heat
adding plasticizer and other
additives
Free standing
film
Reological
properties
Barrier
properties
Colour
and
transparancy
microscopy
Thermal
and
mechanical
properties
Thickness
and
solubility
Application
to products
within or
without
pretreatment step
Coated
products
Sansory
evaluation
Wt.
loss
Firmness
loss
Colour
change
casting
Characterization
Characterization
3. Several formulations of edible coating solutions can be prepared based on the native and
the modified value-added material. The coating solutions are capable to be used for
preservation of food quality.
4. Several technologies could be applied for pretreatment, the innovative technologies would
be paid more attention such as the Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC), and Microwave
in processing of modified starch in order to improve the physical properties of the raw
materials and to facitilate the extraction of starch from the waste, as well as minimizing the
time and chemicals needed to chemical modification, besides introducing improved
physical characteristics of the modified product.
5. The new edible coatings formulated from the modified starch will have superior
characteristics specially in term of barrier properties compared to those formulated from
The native banana starch.
6. Advanced and cosiderable knowlege in the field of waste managment and new routs to
solve the pollution caused by banana waste will initiate real commercial interest which will
inevitaly continue to offer the support needed for further research in the field area.
7. The work will provide a complete picture with respect to valorization of the low cost
banana waste and methods to isolate and modify banana starch, also its composition ,
properties and applications The current tendency is to look for alternative sources for
obtaining starch with better physicochemical and functional characteristics.
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